Dinamika Penegakan Hukum Humaniter Internasional: Analisis Kehadiran PMSC dalam Konflik Non-Internasional di Libanon, Somalia, dan Ukraina

Tulus Yuniasih

Abstract


The article aims to discuss the private military and security companies/PMSC, International Humanitarian Law/IHL and the fourth generation warfare/4GW in contemporary non-international armed conflict. Discussion on PMSC varies in terms of its contribution to the development of weapon system and intelligence gathering in combating terrorism, and of its violation towards humanity that has caused civilian casualties. Meanwhile, IHL is present to regulate the primary actors of international and non-international armed conflict, and to protect civilians in both conflicts. The dynamics of contemporary conflict, especially the asymmetrical non-international armed conflict, is also influenced by the rapid development of information and communication technology. This affects the popularity of the use of and debate on the definition of 4GW and its relevance to the contemporary conflict. This article also analyses the presence of PMSC on the dynamics of respect towards IHL in non-international armed conflict during the period of 2009-2014. The qualitative analysis would be especially conducted under the concept of international law and PMSC as two of the conceptual frameworks. Secondary data is collected on three main variables. The results show that PMSC creates both pontentials and challenges to the effort of upholding IHL in three non-international conflict areas, i.e. Lebanon, Somalia, and Ukraine. In relation to 4GW, PMSC also reflects some characterisation of 4GW trends in such contemporary conflict.

 

Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan perusahaan swasta dalam bidang militer dan keamanan (private military and security companies/PMSC), hukum humaniter internasional (International Humanitarian Law/IHL), dan perang generasi keempat (fourth generation warfare/4GW) dalam konflik bersenjata non-internasional kontemporer. Diskusi mengenai PMSC beragam pada sisi kontribusinya kepada pengembangan sistem persenjataan dan pengumpulan data intelijen dalam rangka melawan terorisme, serta pada sisi pelanggaran terhadap kemanusiaan yang telah mengakibatkan korban sipil. Sementara itu, terdapat IHL yang mengatur para aktor dalam konflik baik itu internasional maupun non-internasional dalam rangka melindungi warga sipil pada keduanya. Dinamika konflik kontemporer terutamanya yang bersifat non-internasional dan asimetris juga dipengaruhi oleh perkembangan pesat teknologi informasi dan komunikasi. Hal ini mendorong perdebatan terkait relevansi 4GW dalam konflik kontemporer. Tulisan ini kemudiannya menganalisis kehadiran PMSC terhadap dinamika penegakan IHL dalam konflik non-internasional kontemporer pada tahun 2009-2014. Analisis kualitatif akan dilakukan terutamanya dengan menggunakan konsep hukum internasional dan PMSC. Data sekunder yang dikumpulkan fokus kepada tiga variabel utama tersebut di atas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa PMSC tidak hanya memberikan potensi kontribusi tetapi juga tantangan kepada upaya menegakkan IHL pada tiga area konflik non-internasional, yaitu Libanon, Somalia dan Ukraina. Terkait dengan 4GW, kehadiran PMSC juga mencerminkan beberapa karakter tren 4GW dalam konflik kontemporer.

Keywords


Non-International Armed Conflict (NIAC); Private Military And Security Company (PMSC); International Humanitarian Law (IHL); Fourth Generation Warfare

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18196/hi.5299

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