Contending Images of World Politics: Penelusuran Kritis terhadap Asal-Usul dan Perdebatan Mengenai Konsep ‘Developing Countries’

Dafri Agussalim


This article is a critical tracer study of genealogy and development, including debates on the concepts and terminology of developing countries. By applying constructivism perspective, it aims to explain the meaning, categories, and criteria, the emergence and development of the idea, and the reason why these concepts and ideas have been changing from time to time. This article argues that the ontological existence (concepts and ideas) of the developing countries is the result of construction of agents both foreign countries–especially the western–and developing countries themselves. Therefore, the conceptualization of developing countries is inseparable from values and (self-)interest of each country, whether it is political, ideological, or economical. As a result, there must be possibilities of inconsistency from the agent in making categorization. This inconsistency is influenced by the changing of identity, world view, interests, and policies of the agents as an impact of geopolitical and geostrategic change in the world after Cold War. The significant economic and political development which has been experienced by some developing countries and the increasing of economic and political problems faced by some developed countries has forced the agents to reconceptualized their identity, interest, and foreign policy toward what so called developing countries.



developing countries; concept and ideas; identity; interest; agents

Full Text:



Abramovitz, M. (2014). Thinking about Growth and Other Essays on Economic Growth and Welfare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Adler, E. (2002). Contructivism and International Relations. Dalam B. A. Carlsnaes, & T. Risse-Kappen (Penyunt.), Handbook of International Relations (hal. 109). London: SAGE.

Bell, C. (1987). Development Economics. Dalam A Dictionary of Economics (hal. 1). The New Palgrave.

Charter of The United Nations: Preamble, UN Documents Gathering a body of global agreements. (2003). New York.

Chenery, H., Ahluwalia, M., Bell, C., Duloy, J., & Jolly, R. (1974). Redistribution with Growth. London: Oxford University Press.

Diamond, S. (2009). In Search of the Primitive: A Critique of Civilization (10th ed.). New Jersey: Transaction Publisher.

Eby Hara, A. (2011). Pengantar Analisis Politik Luar Negeri: Dari Realisme sampai Konstruktivisnme. Bandung: Nuansa.

Fierke, K. M. (2007). Constructivism. Dalam T. Dunne, M. Kurki, & S. Smith (Penyunt.), International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity (hal. 168). New York: Oxford University Press.

Folker, J. S. (2003). Constructivist Approaches. Dalam J. S. Folker, Making Sense of International Relations Theory (hal. 118). London: Lynne Reinner Publisher.

Garritsen de Vries, M. (1986). The IMF in a Changing World, 1945–1985. Washington: International Monetary Fund

Jackson, R. H. (2007). Social Constructivism. Dalam R. H. Jackson, & G. Sorensen (Penyunt.), Introduction to International Relations, Theories and Approaches (3rd ed., hal. 161-162). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jackson, R., & Sorensen, G. (1999). Introduction to International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kapoor, I. (2008). The Postcolonial Politics of Development. New York.

Korotayev, A., & Zinkina, J. (2014). On the structure of the present-day convergence. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 31(2/3), 139-152.

Kuznets, S. (1973, Juni). Modern Economic Growth, Findings and Reflection. The American Economic Review, 63(3).

Leifer, M. (1983). Indonesia’s Foreign Policy. Sydney.

Mason, E. S., & Asher, R. E. (1973). The World Bank since Bretton Woods. Washinton D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

McColl, R. W. (2005). Encyclopedia of World Geography. New York: Golson Books Ltd.

Newman, L., (2003), Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (5th.ed), New York, Allyn and Bacon.

Nielsen, L. (2011). Classifications of Countries Based on Their Level of Development: How it is Done and How it Could be Done. IMF Working Paper, February, hal. 17.

Rao, D. S., & Ark, B. V. (Penyunt.). (2013). World Economic Performance: Past, Present and Future. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Punch, K., (2005), Introduction to Social Research, (2nd.ed), London, SAGE Publications.

Sanford, J. E. (2003). Developing Countries: Definitions, Concepts and Comparisons. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Sauvy, A. (1952, August 14). L'Observateur, dikutip dari Editor's note: Hans Rosling (CNN).

Seers, D. (1979). The Meaning of Development, with a Postscript. Dalam D. Seers, E. W. Nafziger, D. C. O’Brien, & H. Bernste (Penyunt.), Development Theory: Four Critical Studies (hal. 3). London: Frank Cass.

Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49). (2014, Januari 15). Diambil kembali dari United Nations Statistics Division:

Sullivan, A., & Sheffrin, S. M. (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Szirmai, A. (2000). The Dynamics of Socio-Economic Development: An Introduction. Cambridge: University Press.

Weber, Cynthia. (2001), International Relations Theory: A Critical Introduction, (3th ed), London, Routledge.

Wendt, A. (1992). Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization, 46(2), 391-425.

Wendt, A. (1999). Social Theory of International Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

World Bank. (1997). Documents and Reports.

World Bank. (1997). National Accounts Data, and OECD National Accounts Data Files;



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Hubungan Internasional



Creative Commons License   

Jurnal Hubungan Internasional by Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Based on a work at

Print ISSN: 1829-5088 / Online ISSN: 2503-3883