Women Leadership: A Comparative Study between Indonesia and Greece

LYDIA KANELLI KYVELO KOKKALIALI, Ismi Dwi Astuti Nurhaeni

Abstract


One manifestation of women’s leadership is their representation in politics. Although regulation for their participation is implemented, representation in elected office is lower than anticipated.  This article discusses women’s representation as leaders in strategic positions, the challenges of affirmative action regulation and the cultural barriers they face in Indonesia and Greece. The study was conducted in Indonesia and Greece, with documentation method as data collection technique such as: affirmative action regulation on women’s participation in strategic positions and official statistics of women in office. Mix methods employed for data analysis. The findings show three results. Firstly, there are differences in the representation of women as leaders both in numbers and strategic positions held between the two countries. The number of women representatives in parliament in Indonesia is lower than that of Greece, with 17 % and 20% respectively. However, the most important position obtained by a woman in Indonesia is state leader, whilst in Greece is merely minister. Secondly, both countries have implemented legislation for affirmative action regulating the percentage of women candidates. The challenge is how to ensure a raise of women representation as leaders in strategic positions. Finally, women still face cultural barriers such as stereotyping, marginalization and sub-ordination. Civic education providing skills and gender sensitivity concerning leadership for men and women can outdo the barriers. Concluding, differences of women’s leadership in Indonesia and Greece are seen in their number, position, regulation and cultural barriers. This study recommends both countries to conduct regulation concerning women’s representation, not candidacy.


Keywords


Affirmative Action; Indonesia and Greece; Women Representation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Albelda, R.P. (1986) Occupational segregation by race and gender, 1958-81. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 39: 404-11.

Anckar, C. (2008) On the Applicability of the Most Similar Systems Design and the Most Different Systems Design in Comparative Research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 11(5): 389–401

Anderson, E. S. (1999) What is the Point of Equality. Ethics 109(2): 287-337

Appelbaum, S., Molson, H., Audet, J. Miller, L. Joanne C. (2003) Gender and leadership? Leadership and gender? A journey through the landscape of theories. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 24 (1): 43-51

Billing, Y.D. & Alvesson, M. (1989) Four ways of looking at women and leadership. Scandinavian Journal of Management 5(1): 63-80

Bird, K. (2004) The political representation of women and ethnic minorities in established democracies: a framework for comparative studies. AMID Working Paper Series. Retrieved from http://ipsa-rc19.anu.edu.au/papers/bird.htm#_ftn5 (Accessed 06-12-05)

Bjarnegård, E. and Zetterberg, P. (2014) Why Are Representational Guarantees Adopted For Women and Minorities? Comparing Constituency Formation And Electoral Quota Design Within Countries. Representation 50 (3): 307-320

Creswell, J.W. and Plano Clark, V.L. (2007) Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. California: Sage, Thousand Oaks

Eaglya, A. H. & Carlib, L. L. (2003) The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence. The Leadership Quarterly 14: 807–834

England, P. (1975) Assessing Trends in Occupational Segregation, 1900-1976. In Ivar Berg ed., Fuchs, Victor R., A Note on Sex Segregation in Professional Occupations. Explorations in Economic Research 2: 105-11

General Elections Commission (Komisi Pemilihan Umum). Presidential Elections Voters Data 2014 (Data Pemilih Tetap Pilpres). Retrieved from :https://data.kpu.go.id/ss8.php (accessed April 2017)

Gross, E. (1968) Plus Ca Change…? The Sexual Structure of Occupations Over Time. Social Problems 16(2): 198-208.

Htun, M. (2004) Is Gender like Ethnicity? The Political Representation of Identity Groups. Perspectives on Politics 2(3): 439-458

Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in National Parliaments World Classification. Retrieved from http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm (accessed May 2017)

Kakkisis, Joana. (2015) Even As Progressives Take Lead In Greece, Women Remain Out Of Power. National Public Radio (NPR). Parallels. Washington. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2015/02/18/387091215/even-as-progressives-take-lead-in-greece-women-remain-out-of-power (Accessed May 2017)

Kenworthy, L. and Malami, M. (1999) Gender Inequality in Political Representation: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis. Social Forces 78(1): 235-268

Krennerich, M. (2015) The impact of electoral systems, including gender candidate quotas. Women’s representation in parliament. Regional Conference on Gender Equality in Electoral Processes, Tbilisi (Georgia): 25th to 2th November 2015

Kunovich, S. and Paxton, P. (2005). Pathways to Power: The Role of Political Parties in Women’s National Political Representation. American Journal of Sociology 111(2): 505-52

Leech N, Onwuegbuzie A, (2008) A typology of mixed methods research designs, Quality and Quantity, 43(2), March: 265-275

Matland, E. R. (2006). Enhancing Women’s Political Representation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems. In International IDEA, Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers: 77-96 Retrieved from: http://www.idea.int/publications/wip2/index.cfm (Accessed April 2006)

Mills, M., van de Bunt, G. G., & de Bruijn, J. G. M. (2006). Comparative research - Persistent problems and promising solutions. International Sociology 21(5): 619-631.

Myers, C. D., & Mendelberg, T. (2013). Political Deliberation. In L. Huddy, D. O. Sears, & J. S. Levy (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press: 699-736

Okonjo-Iweala, N. (2014) Why Women Must Participate in Decision-Making. Beijing+20 Looking Back and the Road Ahead, Reflections on Milestones in Women’s Leadership in the 21st Century. The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

OSCE/ODIHR (2009) Election Assessment Mission Report, Greece Early Parliamentary Elections: 04 October 2009, Warsaw (Poland)

Parawansa, K. I. (2005) Enhancing Women's Political Participation in Indonesia in Azza, K and Ballington, J. Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. Stockholm: International IDEA

Perrin, A.J. (2005) Political Microcultures: Linking Civic Life and Democratic Discourse. Social Forces 84 (2): 1049-1082

Reilly, B. (1999), “Reformasi Pemilu di Indonesia: Sejumlah Pilihan” -Electoral Reform in Indonesia: Some Alternatives, in Almanak Parpol Indonesia: Pemilu 1999-Directory of Indonesian Political Parties: the

Elections, Jakarta, API, pp 17-32

Reslin, B.P. (1984) Sex Segregation in the Workplace: Trends, Explanations, Remedies. In Sociological Perspectives on Labor Markets. (New York , NY: Academic Press): 273-295

Ryan, M. K. and Haslam, S. A. (2005) The Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women are Over-Represented in Precarious Leadership Positions. British Journal of Management 16(2):81 - 90

Seda, FSSE, Women and politics in Indonesia: a general overview of strengthening women’s political participation. Retrieved from: http://www.wdn.org/sites/default/files/Jakarta1.pdf (April 2017)

Ueno, Mamiko (2015) A Gender-Equal Society and Affirmative Action. The Japan News by The Yomiuri Shimbun. Chuo University Online. Retrieved from http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/adv/chuo/dy/opinion/20141014.html (Accessed: April 2017)

United Nations Development Programme. (2016). Human development report 2016: Human Development for Everyone. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf (accessed April 2017)

Verveer, M. (2014) The Great Unfinished Business of the Beijing Platform for Action in Decision-Making. Beijing+20 Looking Back and the Road Ahead, Reflections on Milestones in Women’s Leadership in the 21st Century. The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Williams, G. (1976). Trends in occupational differentiation by sex. Sociology of Work and Occupations 3: 38-62.

World Economic Forum. (2016). The Global Gender Gap report 2016. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR16/WEF_Global_Gender_Gap_Report_2016.pdf (accessed April 2017)


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

JKSG
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Jln. Lingkar Selatan, Tamantirto, Kasihan, Bantul Yogyakarta
Telp: ( 0274) 387656 ext 249
Phone: 62274287656
Fax: 62274387646
Email: jgp@umy.ac.id


Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan is licenced under a Creative Common Attribution 4.0 International Licence