Profil Protein pada Gelandangan Penderita Psikotik

- Endang, - Suwarso, Adang Muhammad Gugun

Abstract


Psychotic homeless people with nutrition deficiency and low hygiene- sanitation of lifestyle, have high risk for malnutrition and exposure to the infectious and toxic agents. To identify the nutrition status which is demonstrated by the total protein and albumine level; the intensity of exposure of infectious and toxic agents demonstrated by humoral immunity respon of gamma globuline; and the con-dition being exposed by infectious and toxic agents demonstrated by acute phase of globuline alpha-1, alpha-2, beta globuline. This research conducted was an analytic-descriptive cross sectional research on the protein profile of 31 psychotic homeless people who were clinically healthy at random. The method used was helene-titan gel serum pro-tein electrophoresis with agarose gel. The results of electrophoresis were total protein, albumine, globuline (alpha-1 globuline, alpha-2 globuline, beta globuline, gamma globuline). From February until May 2001, 31 psychotic homeless people who were clinically healthy in Yogyakarta were enrolled in the research randomly. They were adult (100%), males 25 (80,6%) and females 6 (19,4%). The results showed that psychotic homeless people with hypoalbuminemia (<3,5 gr/dl) were 4 (12,9%); with hyperalpha-1 globuline (>0,5 gr/dl) was not found; with hyperalpha-2 globuline (>0,8 gr/dl) 3 (9,7%)); with hyperbeta globuline (>1,3 gr/dl) was not found; with hypergamma globuline (>1,6 gr/dl) 16 (51,6%); hyperalbuminemia (4,7 gr/dl) 1 (3,2%); hypoalpha-1 globuline (<0,2 gr/dl) 1 (3,2%); hypoalpha-2 globuline (<0,5 gr/dl) 7 (22,6%); hypobeta globu¬lin (<0,7 gr/dl) 2 (6,4%) and hypogamma globulin (<0,8 gr/dl) was not found. In this research hypergamma globulinemia was the most frequent protein de¬tected; the increase of acute phase protein was relatively small and hypoalbumin¬emia was minimally found. Hypergamma globulin was caused by a condition of active immunity response to antigenic stimulation (the same boostering antigen).

Psychotic homeless people with nutrition deficiency and low hygiene- sanitation of lifestyle, have high risk for malnutrition and exposure to the infectious and toxic agents. To identify the nutrition status which is demonstrated by the total protein and albumine level; the intensity of exposure of infectious and toxic agents demonstrated by humoral immunity respon of gamma globuline; and the con-dition being exposed by infectious and toxic agents demonstrated by acute phase of globuline alpha-1, alpha-2, beta globuline. This research conducted was an analytic-descriptive cross sectional research on the protein profile of 31 psychotic homeless people who were clinically healthy at random. The method used was helene-titan gel serum pro-tein electrophoresis with agarose gel. The results of electrophoresis were total protein, albumine, globuline (alpha-1 globuline, alpha-2 globuline, beta globuline, gamma globuline). From February until May 2001, 31 psychotic homeless people who were clinically healthy in Yogyakarta were enrolled in the research randomly. They were adult (100%), males 25 (80,6%) and females 6 (19,4%). The results showed that psychotic homeless people with hypoalbuminemia (<3,5 gr/dl) were 4 (12,9%); with hyperalpha-1 globuline (>0,5 gr/dl) was not found; with hyperalpha-2 globuline (>0,8 gr/dl) 3 (9,7%)); with hyperbeta globuline (>1,3 gr/dl) was not found; with hypergamma globuline (>1,6 gr/dl) 16 (51,6%); hyperalbuminemia (4,7 gr/dl) 1 (3,2%); hypoalpha-1 globuline (<0,2 gr/dl) 1 (3,2%); hypoalpha-2 globuline (<0,5 gr/dl) 7 (22,6%); hypobeta globu¬lin (<0,7 gr/dl) 2 (6,4%) and hypogamma globulin (<0,8 gr/dl) was not found. In this research hypergamma globulinemia was the most frequent protein de¬tected; the increase of acute phase protein was relatively small and hypoalbumin¬emia was minimally found. Hypergamma globulin was caused by a condition of active immunity response to antigenic stimulation (the same boostering antigen).

Perubahan-perubahan sosial yang berlangsung cepat sebagai akibat dari modernisasi, industrialisasi, kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, memberikan dampak baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung terhadap kehidupan masyarakat. Tidak semua orang mampu beradaptasi terhadap perubahan-perubahan sosial yang terjadi, sehingga perubahan-perubahan tersebut dapat menimbulkan ketegangan atau stress pada dirinya yang akhirnya akan menimbulkan suatu gangguan jiwa. Kesehatan jiwa menurut kedokteran adalah suatu kondisi yang memungkinkan perkembangan fisik, intelektual dan emosional yang optimal dari seseorang dan perkembangan itu berjalan selaras dengan keadaan orang lain. Seseorang dikatakan sakit apabila ia tidak lagi mampu berfungsi secara wajar dalam kehidupan sehari-harinya, di rumah, disekolah, di tempat kerja atau di lingkungan sosialnya. Meskipun demikian, gangguan jiwa tidak dianggap sebagai gangguan yang menyebabkan kematian secara langsung. Dewasa ini, terutama di kota-kota besar, banyak terdapat penderita psikotik yang bergelandangan. Hal ini kemungkinan dapat terjadi karena berbagai hal, antara lain tidak memiliki keluarga yang mampu mengurusnya dengan baik, melarikan diri dari rumah atau pusat rehabilitasi gangguan jiwa, dibuang oleh pihak keluarga karena perasaan malu, dan sebagainya. Gelandangan psikotik adalah seseorang yang berkeliaran atau bergelandangan di tempat umum yang diperkirakan oleh karena terganggu jiwanya atau psikotik dan dianggap mengganggu ketertiban atau keamanan lingkungan. Untuk mempertahankan kelangsungan hidupnya penderita psikotik ini melakukan apa saja yang dianggap benar olehnya, antara lain makan dari sisa-sisa makanan yang berhasil diperolehnya baik di pinggiran atau bahkan di tempat sampah, hidup di alam bebas tanpa perlindungan seperti tidur di jalanan, berpakaian seadanya bahkan ada beberapa diantara mereka tidak berpakaian, hidup di lingkungan dengan higiene dan sanitasi yang buruk, dan lain-lain. Dikarenakan gaya hidup penderita psikotik yang sangat ekstrim dibandingkan dengan manusia normal, menimbulkan pertanyaan bagaimanakah status nutrisi dan status kesehatan pada penderita psikotik ini. Pada penelitian ini akan dianalisis fragmen-fragmen protein yang terkandung dalam serum penderita psikotik gelandangan. Protein serum merupakan campuran yang amat kompleks yang mencakup glikoprotein dan berbagai tipe lipoprotein. Pemisahan masing-masing protein dari campuran yang kompleks ini digunakan metode serum protein elektroforesis. Elektroforesis adalah istilah yang dipakai untuk memisahkan protein berdasarkan kecepatan geraknya bila satu aliran elektris melalui cairan berprotein dalam medium pendukung. Kecepatan gerak dipengaruhi oleh besarnya, konfigurasi dan muatan elektris pada molekul.


Keywords


psychotic; homeless people; higiene-sanitation; albumine; globuline; psikosis; gelandangan; higiene-sanitasi; albumin; globulin

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