Efek Samping Kemoterapi dan Radioterapi pada Sel-sel Spermatogenik dan Spermatozoa

Alfaina Wahyuni

Abstract


Medical treatment for cancer is a combination of operative treatment, ra-diotherapy and chemotherapy. Theoretically, anticancer agent can kill can¬cer cells. However, it also causes many side effects especially on the normal cells, which have high mitosis activity. One of them is spermatogenic cell. Anticancer agent is included into reproductive toxin. Its working mecha-nism is by the alkylation of biologic molecules. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduce the number of spermatogonia Al, spermatogonia B and cause aberation of DNA structures on the next-generation cells including spermatozoa, hence result in the decrease of number of spermatozoa and sperm motility and the increase of the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. The effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy are temporary and reversibel. The cell recovery depends on the type of anticancer agent, its dosage and the length of therapy applied. Spermatogonia stem cells are the most important factors on this process.

Tindakan medis yang dilakukan untuk pengobatan kanker adalah kombinasi pembedahan, radioterapi dan kemoterapi. Secara teoritis bahan antikanker bisa membunuh sel kanker, tetapi kenyataannya banyak menimbulkan efek samping terutama pada sel normal yang mempunyai aktivitas pembelahan cepat. Salah satu diantaranya adalah sel-sel spermatogenik. Bahan-bahan antikanker termasuk dalam golongan toksin reproduktif. Mekanisne kerjanya dengan cara mengalkilasi molekul biologis. Pascaradioterapi dan kemoterapi terjadi penurunan jumlah spermatogonia Al dan B dan menyebabkan aberasi struktur DNA pada generasi sel berikutnya termasuk spermatozoa. Akibatnya jumlah dan motilitas menurun dan persentase abnormalitas spermatozoa meningkat. Efek radioterapi dan kemoterapi bersifat temporer dan bisa terjadi pemulihan. Pemulihan sangat tergantung pada jenis bahan antikanker, dosis dan lama pemberian. Sel spermatogonia induk merupakan faktor terpenting dalam proses tersebut.


Keywords


radiotherapy; chemotherapy; spermatogonia; radioterapi; kemoterapi

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References


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