Masalah-masalah dalam Penatalaksanaan Tekanan Darah Tinggi pada Lanjut Usia dan Peran-peran Pengasuh Utamanya (Caregiver): Sebuah Studi Kualitatif

Uswatun Khasanah

Abstract


A caring nursing relationship with hypertensive clients at their homes can have positive effects upon their blood pressure. This paper attempts to reveal efforts of the hypertensive older adults and their caregivers in dealing the high blood pressure. This study shows that often older adults they do not realize they are having hypertension at first; accidentally they are diagnosed with hypertension when they seek help for other health problem. While the others realize that they are having hypertension after the screening program conducted by students or health professional.
Soon after the older adults realize they are diagnosed with hypertension, changing the risky behaviors, asking and searching information related the disease follows. However, often they neglect the disease management when they feel the disease symptoms disappear. Or still practicing incorrect management, such as improper medical regiment, irregular checking blood pressure till does not manage their high blood pressure at all. The common practices among the hypertensive are alternative medicine used, such as using herbs, holy water, or asking help from the traditional healer as well as the spiritual leader. Concerning older adult caregivers roles are as the main psychological and financial support for the older adults.
This study demonstrates various perspectives of older adults and caregivers problems and efforts in maintaining blood pressure within recommended level. This is very useful information for the health professional in caring the hypertensive older adult comprehensively according to their needs and their perspective.

Artikel ini mengemukakan tentang persepsi dari lanjut usia dan pengasuhnya tentang usaha-usaha mereka untuk mengontrol tekanan darah tinggi yang dialami oleh para lanjut usia dirumah. Hasil dari penelitian dengan desain kualitatif dan wawancara sebagai tehnik pengumpulan data ini yaitu kebanyaan pada awalnya lanjut usia tidak menyadari bahwa mereka menderita tekanan darah tinggi, baru setelah mereka memeriksakan masalah kesehatan yang lainnya kepada tenaga kesehatan dan dicek tekanan darah tingginya, didapakan tekanan darah tingginya melebihi batas normal yang direkomendasikan. Sedangkan lanjut usia yang lainnya mengetahui kalau mereka menderita tekanan darah tinggi setelah ada program screening dari mahasiswa atau tenaga kesehatan yang lainnya.
Segera setelah lanjut usia mengetahui mereka menderita tekanan darah tinggi, maka merubah tingkah laku yang membahayakan kesehatan, bertanya dan mencari informasi yang berkaitan dengan penyakitnya adalah hal yang dilakukan oleh para lanjut usia tersebut. Akan tetapi masih banyak diantara lanjut usia tersebut yang melakukan penatalaksanaan yang kurang tepat, seperti penggunaan obat yang salah, tidak teratur mengontrol tekanan darah atau juga tidak melakukan apapun untuk mengontrol penyakitnya tersebut. Praktek yang sering dilakukan untuk mengontrol tekanan darah tinggi diantaranya yaitu lanjut usia menggunakan pengobatan alternative seperti dengan menggunakan tumbuh-tumbuhan, air suci, atau meminta pertolongan dari pengobat tradisional dan juga pemimpin agama. Tentang pengasuh anjut usia, mereka adalah pendukung secara psykologis dan juga financial.
Penelitian ini menunjukkan beberapa perspektif lanjut usia dan pengasuhnya tentang usaha-usaha yang dilakukan untuk mempertahankan kesehatan lanjut usia. Hal ini merupakan informasi yang sangat berharga bagi tenaga kesehatan dalam merawat lanjut usia dengan darah tinggi secara komprehensif dan berdasarkan kebutuhannya dan dengan memperhatikan perspective mereka.

Keywords


Lanjut usia dengan hypertension; caregiver (pengasuh utama); manajemen hipertensi; hypertensive older adults; caregiver; hypertension management

Full Text:

PDF

References


Jitapunkul, S., Chayovan, N., & Kespichayawattana, J. (2002,). Long-term provision for older persons in Thailand. Presented as The 5th ADRF general meeting, 2002 Bangkok, Thailand.:

Department of Health Republic Indonesia. (2000). Indonesia health profile. Retrieved at July 2003. From: www.depkes.go.id/IND/PROFILDEP/IS2010/ perkembangan.html.

National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [NIH, NHLBI]. (2003). The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. U.S. Department of Health and Human Service.

Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. (2000). Thailand Health Profile 1999- 2000. Retrieved August, 2003, from: www.moph.go.th/ops/thealth.44/ index.eng.htm

Buranakitjaroen, P. (2000,). The detection, control and prevention of hypertension in Thailand. /Abstract presented in World Hypertension League (WHL) Regional Meeting in Beijing, China 9-12 October 2000]. Retrieved August 8, 2003. Available from: http://www.mco.edu/org/whl/pdfs/pdf_yearbook/ 16_pgs_77_82.pdf

Khasanah, U. (2002). Applied Oremys self care theory in hypertension clients in Ban Daeng Yai Moo Song Tambon Daeng Yai Amphoe Muang Khon Kaen Province. Unpublished report for course 251 841 Community Nursing III in Master in Community Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Lahdenpera, T.S., Wright, C.C. & Kyngas, H.A. (2003). Development of a scale to assess the compliance of hypertensive patients. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40, 677-684.

Rothman, N.L., Moriarty, L., Rothman, R.H., Silver, C., O’Connor, P.C., & Agvas, J. (1994). Establishing a home care protocol for early discharge of patients with hip and knee arthroplasties. Home Healthcare Nurse, 12

(1) , 24-30.

Hunt, R. (2001a). Continuity of care. In R. Hunt, Introduction to community-based nursing (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Banchuin, C. (2002). New health insurance policy in Thailand. Ministry of Public Health Thailand. Retrieved September 13, 2003, from: http:// www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2002/SocialProtection/ banchuin_paper.pdf

Huber, D. (2000). Leadership and nursing care management (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B Saunders..

Kemp, N., & Richardson, E. (1995). Quality assurance in nursing practice (2nd ed.). London: Butterworth Heinemann.

Promjan, N. (2002). The readiness for hospital accreditation of health personnel in general hospitals in the southern region of Thailand. Master Thesis in Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University, Thailand.

Srisutthikamon, N. (2002). Quality Assessment of home health care in Khon Kaen region hospital. Master Thesis Abstract Community Nursing, Graduate School., Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Nicholls, M.E. (1977). Factors affecting nursing standards at the practice level. In M.E. Nicholls & V.G. Wessells (Eds.), Nursing standards and nursing process. Massachusetts: Contemporary Publishing.

Kirdphon, W. (2003). Accepting and adjusting to chronicity of hypertension: a grounded theory study in Thai people. Doctoral thesis: University of Washington.

Panpakdee, O., Hanucharumkul, S., Sritanyarat, W., Kompayak, J., & Tanomsup., S. (2003). Self-care process in Thai people with hypertension: an emerging model. Thai Journal Nursing Research, 7(2), 121-136

Kyngas, H.A., & Lahdenpera, T.S., (1999). Compliance of patients with hypertension and associated factors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29 (4), 832-839.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/1877

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Office:
Faculty of Medicine and Health Science Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta,
Gedung G1 (Biomedik) Lantai Dasar, FKIK UMY, Phone: +62 274 387 656 (ext: 231)
Jalan Brawijaya (Lingkar Selatan), Tamantirto, Kasihan, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Website: http://journal.umy.ac.id/index.php/mm - E-mail: jmmfkik@umy.ac.id

Creative Commons License
MMJKK is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.