Faktor Risiko Gangguan Pendengaran pada Skrining Pendengaran Bayi Baru Lahir di Rumah Sakit PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Bambang Edy Susyanto, Asti Widuri

Abstract


Jenis ketulian neonatus yang banyak dijumpai adalah sensori. Upaya habilitasi hanya dengan memasang alat bantu dengar dan melatih dengan metode audiovisual. Habilitasi sangat efektif bila dilakukan pada periode perkembangan bicara anak sekitar usia 9 bulan sampai 3 tahun. Untuk itu perlu dideteksi dini adanya ketulian pada neonatus, dan segera dimulai habilitasi pendengaran. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui frekuensi jenis faktor risiko yang potensial penyebab ketulian neonatal. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancang penelitian potong lintang, dengan menggunakan alat otoacoustic emission (OAE) untuk deteksi ketulian neonatus yang lahir antara bulan Januari dan December 2014 di RS PKU Muhammadiyah. Faktor risiko di lihat dalam rekam medik, data dianalisis menggunakan  chi-square. Faktor risiko ketulian yang paling banyak adalah hiperbilirubin sejumlah 44 (53.0%) kasus, prematuritas sejumlah 30 (36.1%) kasus, ventilasi mekanik sejumlah 27 (32.5%) kasus, dan BBLR sejumlah 16 (19.3%). Uji statistik chi-square menunjukkan p=0,001 pada risiko BBLR. Disimpulkan BBLR menjadi salah satu risiko gangguan pendengaran pada skrining pendengaran bayi baru lahir.

The most common congenital neonatus hearing loss is sensory disorder. The habilitation is wearing hearing aids, and audiovisual training. Effective habilitation  if perform at optimal early childhood speech development around 9 month to 3 years old. For this reason need early neonatus hearing detection and habilitation. The aims to know the frequency and potential of neonatal hearing loss risk factors.  The method by cross sectional method newborns were tested with OAE screening test, between Januari 2014 and December 2014 in PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital. From medical report all risk factors data and analyzed by chi-square.  Most hearing impairment risk factors are hyperbilirubinemia 44 (53.0%) cases, prematurity 30 (36.1%) cases, mechanical ventilation 27 (32.5%) cases, and low birth weight LBW 16 (19.3%) cases. By chi-square shown p=0,001 for low birth weight. LBW as one of risk factor to  hearing impairment at newborn hearing screening.


Keywords


neonatus; sensory hearingloss; risk factor; early detection; OAE; neonatus; tuli sensori; faktor risiko; deteksi dini

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References


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