Metaphysics in the Epistemology : A Critical Analysis of Islamic and Western Philosophical tradition

Lukman Atmaja, Ridho Ramazani Bin Cecep Mustopa

Abstract


Western epistemology was greatly influenced by Greek philosophical ideas. In the course of history, Epistemology has been dominated by patterns of thought that are rational, secular and free from religious values and beliefs. History shows that the Western Epistemology turned into a large school that became dominant: in the form of rationalism, empiricism, criticism, and intuition. Although it has various methods and approaches to acquire knowledge, in principle the building and its foundation have the same way of thinking that comes from a philosophy that upholds the mind and also relies on human sensory abilities. The West denies revelation as a source of knowledge and for Islam, revelation is the highest source of knowledge. Authentic revelation is the Qur'an and Hadith. The result of this paper shows Western epistemology has a foundation and roots that are based on philosophical thinking that is far from the touch of religious values. Western epistemology in its manifestations is then limited to the acquisition of knowledge about the visible world such as sensory nature and not touching on other realms. Western epistemology focuses more on reason and senses as the main source of science, dichotomization, anthropocentrism, opposition to the spiritual dimension, relentless uncertainty, secularization, desacralization, and empiricism. While tthe Islamic epistemology views both sensory and metaphysical objects and recognizes the three sources of knowledge at once namely senses, reason, intuition. Each of these sources has different levels of ability so they cannot be separated and must be used proportionally. The object of knowledge in Islam is not only empirical, but also metaphysical. The source of knowledge in Islam is also different from Western epistemology. If the West only recognizes the senses and ratios, then in the Muslim view, knowledge comes from God obtained through: the senses are healthy, khabar sadiq, and intuition.


Keywords


Epistemology, Metaphysics, Islam, West, Revelation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adian, Donny Gahral. 2002. Menyoal Objektivisme Ilmu Pengetahuan: dari David Hume sampai Thomas Kuhn, (Bandung: Teraju)

Al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib. 1993. Islam and Secularism, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC)

Amien, Miska M., 1983. Epistemologi Islam, (Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia)

Amstrong, Amatullah. 1996. Khazanah Istilah Sufi, Kunci Memasuki Dunia Tasawuf, Trans. Nasrullah dan Ahmad Baiquni, (Bandung: Mizan)

Armas, Adnin. 2007. Krisis Epistemologi dan Islamisasi Ilmu, (Ponorogo: CIOS)

Bakar, Osman. 1990. Hierarki Ilmu; Membangun Rangka-Pikir Islamisasi Ilmu, (Bandung, Mizan)

Esposito, John L. 2001. Oxford Encyclopedia: Modern Islamic World, Vol. 6, (Bandung, Mizan)

Ewing, Alfred Cyril. 1962. The Fundamental Question of Philosophy, (New York: Collier Books)

Husaini, Adian. 2005. Wajah Peradaban Barat; dari Hegemoni Kristen ke Dominasi Sekular Liberal, (Jakarta: Gema Insani Press)

______________. 2013. Filsafat Ilmu Perspektif Barat dan Islam, (Jakarta: Gema Insani)

Iverach, James. 1995. “Epistemology,” Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York: Charles Scribner’s Son’s)

Jumantoro. 2005. Kamus Ilmu Tasawuf, (Wonosobo: Amza)

Kadir, Muslim A. 2011. Dasar-Dasar Praktikum Keberagamaan dalam Islam, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar)

Kaelan. 1998. Filsafat Bahasa, Masalah dan Perkembangannya, (Yogyakarta: Paradigma)

Kartanegara, Mulyadhi. 2002. Menembus Batas Waktu: Panorama Filsafat Islam, (Bandung: Mizan Pustaka)

Muhadjir, Noeng. 2001. Filsafat Ilmu: Positivisme, Post-Positivisme, dan Post-Modernisme, (Yogyakarta: Rake Sarasin)

Muslih, Mohammad. 2004. Filsafat Ilmu; Kajian atas Asumsi Dasar Paradigma dan Kerangka Teori Ilmu Pengetahuan, (Jogjakarta: Belukar)

Muthahhari, Murtadha. 2010. Pengantar Epistemologi Islam: Sebuah Pemetaan dan Kritik Epistemologi Islam atas Paradigma Pengetahuan Ilmiah dan Relefansi Pandangan Dunia, Trans. Muhammad Jawad Bafaqih, (Jakarta: Shadra Press)

Poedjawijatna, I. R. 1997. Pembimbing ke Arah Alam Filsafat, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta)

Qomar, Mujamil. 2007. Epistemologi Pendidikan Islam: dari Metode Rasional hingga Metode Kritik, (Jakarta: Erlangga)

Sadra, Mulla. 1984. Iksir al-Arifin, (Tokyo: Jami’ah Tokyo)

Santoso, Listyono. 2010. “Kritik Hassan Hanafi Atas Epistemologi Rasionalitas Modern,” di Epistemologi Kiri, (Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media)

Siswanto, Joko. 1998. Sistem-Sistem Metafisika Barat dari Aristoteles Sampai Derrida, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar)

______________. Metafisika Sistematik, (Yogyakarta: Penerbit Taman Pustaka Kristen)

Sudarsono. 2001. Ilmu Filsafat Suatu Pengantar, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta)

Suhartono, Suparlan. 2008. Filsafat Ilmu Pengetahuan; Persoalan Eksistensi dan Hakekat Ilmu Pengetahuan, (Jogjakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media)

Tafsir, Ahmad. 2001. Filsafat Umum, (Bandung: Remaja Rosda Karya)

Zaprulkhan. 2014. Filsafat Islam: Sebuah Kajian Tematik, (Jakarta: Rajawali Press)




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/AIIJIS.2020.0111.22-39

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Afkaruna: Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.



p-ISSN (Media Cetak) 2599-0551, e-ISSN (Media Online) 2599-0586

Afkaruna: Indonesian Interdiciplinary Journal Of Islamic Studies indexed by:   


Office:

tumblr counter
Afkaruna View My Stats