The Effect of Touch and Sound Therapy to The Level of Pain and Physiological Parameters in Infants

Rafika Dora Wijaya, Tita Husnitawati Madjid, Enny Harliany Alwi


Background: During hospitalization, infants are exposed to unpleasant stimuli such as stress, pain, noise, and invasive procedures. These stimuli produce significant changes in vital signs. Touch and sound therapies are a therapy given to the infants in the form of a mother's touch and a light pat on the baby's hands, feet, body, and head. This procedure is accompanied by rhythmic sounds that have been made in the form of audio files.

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether touch and sound therapy can affect the level of pain and physiological parameter (heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation) in infants by venous blood sampling.

Method: This research is an experimental study with a control time-series design, which was conducted from July to October 2013. The research subjects are 30 infants aged 1-12 months who took venous blood samples. Research data were analyzed statistically by the t-test.

Result: The results showed that the NIPS scores differed significantly between the intervention and control groups p = 0.000 (p <0.05). Heart rate has a significant effect between the intervention and control groups p = 0.011 (p <0.05). The respiratory rate in the intervention group was lower compared to the control group p = 0.033 (p <0.05). There was no significant difference in oxygen saturation between the intervention and control groups p = 0.232 (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Touch and Sound therapy decrease levels of pain, heart rate, and respiratory rate, but does not affect oxygen saturation.


invasive procedure; pain level; physiological parameters; sound therapy; therapeutic touch

Full Text:



Anton, O., Fernandez, R., Rendon-Morales, E., Aviles-Espinosa, R., Jordan, H., & Rabe, H. (2019). Heart Rate Monitoring in Newborn Babies: A Systematic Review. Neonatology, 116(3), 199–210.

Azarmnejad, E., Sarhangi, F., Javadi, M., & Rejeh, N. (2015). The Effect of Mother’s Voice on Arterial Blood Sampling Induced Pain in Neonates Hospitalized in Neonate Intensive Care Unit. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(6), 198–204.

Barry, E. S. (2019). Co-sleeping as a proximal context for infant development: The importance of physical touch. Infant Behavior and Development, 57(September), 101385.

Bueno, M. (2020, January 20). Neurologic Manifestations - Pain ; Hospital for Sick Children Researchers Publish New Data on Pain [ A cluster randomized clinical trial to. News Rx, pp. 7–9.

Cullington, G. (2016, November). Family-centres care is essential. Irish Medical Times.

Deng, Q., Li, Q., Wang, H., Sun, H., & Xu, X. (2018). Early father-infant skin-to-skin contact and its effect on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of moderately preterm infants in China: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Bio Medical Central, 19(1), 1–11.

Efendi, D., Caswini, N., Rustina, Y., & Iskandar, R. A. T. P. (2018). Combination of Mother Therapeutic Touch (MTT) and Maternal Voice Stimulus (MVS) therapies stabilize sleep and physiological function in preterm infants receiving minor invasive procedures. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 24(6), 318–324.

Eichner, J. M., Johnson, B. H., Betts, J. M., Chitkara, M. B., Jewell, J. A., Lye, P. S., … Shelton, T. (2012). Patient- and Family-Centered Care and the Pediatrician’s Role. Pediatrics, 129(2), 394–404.

Galdino, J., Perrelli, A., Zambaldi, C. F., Cantilino, A., & Sougey, E. B. (2014). Mother-child bonding assessment tools. Revista Paulista De Pediatria, 32(3), 257–265.

Hockenberry, M., Wilson, D., & Rodgers, C. (2017). Wong’s Esssentials of Pediatric Nursing (10 th, Vol. 3). Retrieved from

Karaca Ciftci, E., Kardas Ozdemir, F., & Aydln, D. (2016). Effect of flick application on pain level and duration of crying during infant vaccination Neurology, Behaviour and Development. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 42(1).

Karakul, A., & Bolışık, Z. B. (2018). The Effect of Music Listened to During the Recovery Period After Day Surgery on the Anxiety State and Vital Signs of Children and Adolescents. The Journal of Pediatric Research, 5(2), 82–87.

Kucukoglu, S., Aytekin, A., Celebioglu, A., Celebi, A., Caner, I., & Maden, R. (2016). Effect of White Noise in Relieving Vaccination Pain in Premature Infants. Pain Management Nursing, 17(6), 392–400.

Qiu, J., Jiang, Y. fei, Li, F., Tong, Q. hong, Rong, H., & Cheng, R. (2017). Effect of combined music and touch intervention on pain response and β-endorphin and cortisol concentrations in late preterm infants. BMC Pediatrics, 17(1), 1–7.

Ramada, N. C. O., Almeida, F. de A., & Cunha, M. L. da R. (2013). Toque terapêutico: influência nos parâmetros vitais de recém-nascidos. Einstein (São Paulo), 11(4), 421–425.

Sutton. (2020, November). Family-centred care is ’ essential ’. Irish Medical Times, 50, 1–4.

University of Oxford. (2015, May 10). Pain ; Babies feel pain ’ like adults ’. News Rx, pp. 3–5.

Yusuf, N., Hadisaputro, S., Runjati, Suwondo, A., Mashoedi, I., & Supriyana. (2012). The Effectiveness of Combination of Kangaroo Mother Care Method and Lullaby Music Therapy on Vital Sign Change in Infants with Low Birth Weight. Belitung Nursing Journal, 53(9), 1689–1699.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

IJNP (Indonesian Journal of Nursing Practices) are indexed by:


School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Siti Walidah Building F3, 4th floor.
JL. Brawijaya, Tamantirto, Kasihan, Bantul, Yogyakarta 55183

Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal of Nursing Practice is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats