Diplomasi Ekonomi China di Negara-Negara Teluk

Bambang Cipto


This article aims to analyse the diplomatic relation between China and the gulf states which  incorporated to Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The absence of England from this region in late 1960s was marked by the changing of China relation to the gulf states. However, as the pro-communist policy by China had spread over the world, the gulf country were reluctant to open diplomatic relation with China immediately. Therefore, this situation has made the changes went slowly. The spreading of the external threat from Soviet Union Communism in Iraq, became a strong consideration for Kuwait to eventually open the diplomatic relation to China before the other gulf state.

Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan diplomasi antara China dan negara-negara Teluk yang tergabung dalam Dewan Kerjasama Teluk (Gulf Cooperation Council/GCC).  Keluarnya Inggris dari kawasan Teluk pada akhir dekade 60-an ditandai, antara lain, dengan perubahan hubungan China dan negara-negara Teluk. Namun perubahan ini berlangsung cukup lambat karena masa lalu kebijakan pro-komunis China di berbagai belahan dunia membuat negara-negara Teluk tidak segera membuka hubungan diplomasi dengan China pada saat itu. Kuwait merupakan sebuah perkecualian karena kekhawatiran Kuwait terhadap melebarnya pengaruh Uni Soviet di Iraq yang cenderung pro-Uni Soviet. Kekhawatiran terhadap ancaman eksternal ini menjadi alasan kuat bagi Kuwait untuk mendahalui rekan-rekannya sesama negara Teluk dalam membuka hubungan diplomatik dengan China.


Dewan Kerjasama Teluk; Diplomasi Ekonomi China; Negara Teluk

Full Text:



Aguilar, J. (2013, March 13). China-Qatar relations get a boost. Diambil kembali dari Gulf Times: http://www.gulf-times.com/story/345338/China-Qatar-relations-get-a-boost

Albawaba. (2004, July 19). Bank of China opens Bahrain branch. Diambil kembali dari Albawaba Business: http://www.albawaba.com/business/bank-china-opens-bahrain-branch

Albawaba. (2015, October 30). This Gulf state was listed as the richest country in the world. Diambil kembali dari Albawaba: http://www.albawaba.com/loop/gulf-state-was-listed-richest-country-world-761258

Al-Tamimi, N. (2014, November 24). Qatar looks East: Growing importance of China’s LNG market. Diambil kembali dari Al-Arabia English: http://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/business/2014/11/24/Qatar-looks-East-Growing-importance-of-China-s-LNG-market.html

Aluwaisheg, A. A. (2014, January 19). China-GCC strategic dialogue resumes. Diambil kembali dari Arab News: http://www.arabnews.com/news/511401

Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (n.d.). Economic Diplomacy. Diambil kembali dari http://dfat.gov.au/trade/economic-diplomacy/pages/economic-diplomacy.aspx

Bahrains News Agency. (2014, April 28). Boost Bahrain-Chinese Relations. Diambil kembali dari Bahrains News Agency: http://www.bna.bh/portal/en/news/724865

Bakr, A. (2015, April 14). Qatar launches first Chinese yuan clearing hub in Middle East. Diambil kembali dari Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/qatar-china-yuan-idUSL5N0XB2D220150414

BBC. (n.d.). Open Door Policy. Diambil kembali dari Inside China's Ruling Party: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/asia_pac/02/china_party_congress/china_ruling_party/key_people_events/html/open_door_policy.stm

CGTN America. (2016, January 20). China to strengthen ties with Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Diambil kembali dari https://america.cgtn.com/2016/01/20/president-xi-pushes-forward-china-gcc-fta-talks

Denemark, R. A. (2010). The International Studies Encyclopedia (Vol. II). Wiley Blackwell.

Egypt, E. O. (2014, January 17). Third Round of China-Gulf Cooperation Council Strategic Dialogue Held in Beijing. Diambil kembali dari Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Arab Republic of Egypt: http://eg.china-embassy.org/eng/zgyw/t1121625.htm

Embassy of People's Republic of China in the State of Kuwait. (n.d.). China and Kuwait. Diambil kembali dari Embassy of People's Republic of China in the State of Kuwait: http://kw.chineseembassy.org/eng/sbgx/t580302.htm

Emirates New Agency. (2015, December 09). UAE and China enjoy robust relations and bullish prospects: Report. Diambil kembali dari Emirates New Agency: https://www.wam.ae/en/news/emirates-international/1395289014840.html

Gulf News Government. (2015, December 17). UAE, China launch $10b joint strategic fund. Diambil kembali dari Gulf News Government: http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/government/uae-china-launch-10b-joint-strategic-fund-1.1636147

Hao, Y. (2014, January 20). Some Thoughts on Deepening Economic Diplomacy. (L. Xiaoyu, Penyunting) Diambil kembali dari China Institute of International Studies: http://www.ciis.org.cn/english/2014-01/20/content_6623715.htm

Hocking, D. L. (2010). Economic Diplomacy.

Hua, C. ( 2015, Desember 12). Visit marks the beginning of a ‘new era of UAE-China relations’. Diambil kembali dari The National: http://www.thenational.ae/opinion/comment/visit-marks-the-beginning-of-a-new-era-of-uae-china-relations#full

Institute of Energy Research. (2015, May 13). China Overtakes U.S. as World’s Largest Oil Importer. Diambil kembali dari Institute of Energy Research: http://instituteforenergyresearch.org/analysis/china-overtakes-u-s-as-worlds-largest-oil-importer/

Jaber, S. A. (2016, February 14). Opinion: Asia's middle class is reshaping world trade. Diambil kembali dari CNN Money: http://money.cnn.com/2016/02/14/news/economy/china-india-middle-class-world-trade/

Karasik, T. (2016, February 24). The GCC’s New Affair with China. Diambil kembali dari Middle East Institute: http://www.mei.edu/content/map/gcc%E2%80%99s-new-affair-china

Li Xiaokun, X. Z. (2016, January 21). China and Gulf nations resume free trade agreement talks. Diambil kembali dari China Daily: http://www.mei.edu/content/map/gcc%E2%80%99s-new-affair-china

Lulu, F. (2011, September 07). he Study about the Development Strategy of Economic and Trade Relations between China and Kuwait. Diambil kembali dari Xinhua.net: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-09/07/c_131112242.htm

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of People's Republic of China. (2011, May 03). The Second China-GCC Strategic Dialogue Held in Abu Dhabi. Diambil kembali dari Ministry of Foreign Affairs of People's Republic of China: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/topics_665678/yangjiechichufang_665758/t819923.shtml

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. (2010, June 04). Press Communiqué of the First Ministerial Meeting of the Strategic Dialogue Between the People's Republic of China and The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. Diambil kembali dari Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjdt_665385/2649_665393/t707677.shtml

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. (2015). Diambil kembali dari Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China.

Molavi, A. (2015, December 23). The United Arab Emirate, China, and the New Triple South. Diambil kembali dari The Foreign Policy Institute.

Niazi, K. (2009, September 01). Kuwait Looks towards the East: Relations with China. Diambil kembali dari Middle East Institute: http://www.mei.edu/content/kuwait-looks-towards-east-relations-china

Observer, O. D. (2015). Diambil kembali dari http://omanobserver.om/china-investments-touch-2-bn/

Rakhmad, M. Z. (2014, May 22). China and Bahrain: Undocumented Growing Relations. Diambil kembali dari Fair Observer: http://www.fairobserver.com/region/middle_east_north_africa/china-and-bahrain-undocumented-growing-relations-66107/

Rakhmat, M. Z. (2015, June 06). China, Qatar, and RMB Internationalization. Diambil kembali dari The Diplomat: http://thediplomat.com/2015/06/china-qatar-and-rmb-internationalization/

Reuters. (2016, May 23). Chinese investors to build industrial park at Oman's Duqm port. Diambil kembali dari Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/oman-china-industry-idUSL5N18K32D

Salacanin, S. (2015, February 1). Oil and Gas reserves: how long will they last? Diambil kembali dari BQ Magazine: http://www.bq-magazine.com/energy/2015/02/oil-and-gas-reserves-in-the-gcc

The Diplomat. (2014, May 10). Exploring the China and Oman Relationship. Diambil kembali dari The Diplomat: http://thediplomat.com/2014/05/exploring-the-china-and-oman-relationship/

The Guardian. (2008, December 18). The Great Pragmatist: Deng Xiaoping. Diambil kembali dari The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2008/dec/18/globaleconomy-economics

Times of Oman. (2016, May 16). Oman, China business heads explore avenues. Diambil kembali dari Times of Oman: http://timesofoman.com/article/83923/Oman/Government/Oman-China-business-heads-explore-avenues

U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2015, October 20). Qatar. Diambil kembali dari U.S. Energy Information Administration: https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=QAT

Vine, D. (2016, January 20). The U.S. Has an Empire of Bases in the Middle East — and It’s Not Making Anyone Safer. Diambil kembali dari Foreign Policy in Focus: http://fpif.org/u-s-empire-bases-middle-east-not-making-anyone-safer/

Xinhuanet . (2014, June 17). First Confucius Institute in Bahrain Established. Diambil kembali dari Xinhuanet : http://english.hanban.org/article/2014-06/17/content_541527.htm

Xuequan, M. (2014, June 03). China, Kuwait eye closer friendship, cooperation. Diambil kembali dari Xinhuanet: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2014-06/03/c_126576653.htm

Zambelis, C. (2016). China and the Quiet Kingdom: An Assessment of China-Oman Relations. China Brief, 15(22).

Zweig, D. (2010). The Rise of a New Trading Nation. Dalam L. D. Yu, China, The Developing World, and the New Global Dynamic (hal. 38). Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publisher, Inc.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/hi.5294

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 12 times
PDF - 2 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Hubungan Internasional

Creative Commons License   

Jurnal Hubungan Internasional by Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Based on a work at http://journal.umy.ac.id/index.php/jhi.

Print ISSN: 1829-5088 / Online ISSN: 2503-3883