Thermal Characterization of Mixed Virgin-Recycle Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene

Cahyo Budiyantoro, Harini Sosiati, Adi Nugroho, Arista Anggariawan

Abstract


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) adalah bahan plastik yang banyak digunakan pada pembuatan komponen otomotif. Limbah ABS dari industri injection molding berupa sisa potongan runner memiliki kualitas yang baik sebagai campuran dalam siklus proses produksi. Pencampuran ini bermanfaat secara ekonomis untuk mengurangi penggunaan bahan virgin. Salah satu parameter penting dalam proses injeksi adalah sifat thermal untuk menentukan titik lebur yang sesuai, sifat thermal dari campuran bahan daur ulang dan bahan virgin akan mengalami perubahan jika dibandingkan bahan aslinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari sifat termal dari bahan acrilonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) virgin yang dicampur dengan ABS daur ulang pada variasi 15%, 30%, dan 45% (% berat bahan daur ulang). Spesimen dibuat menggunakan mesin injeksi molding MEIKI 70 Ton dan dievaluasi sifat termalnya dengan menggunakan Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) sesuai standard ASTM 3418-2015. Hasil uji DSC menunjukkan bahwa nilai glass transition temperature (Tg) pada variasi campuran  15%, 30% dan 45% masing-masing adalah 104.08 °C, 104.63 °C dan 105.46 °C. Sementara itu, untuk nilai melting temperature (Tm) dari ketiga variasi tersebut masing masing adalah 139,6 °C, 139,72 °C dan 132,2 °C, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa penambahan kandungan daur ulang bahan ABS memberikan peningkatan pada nilai Tg dan penurunan pada nilai Tm meskipun tidak signifikan.

 

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene is a common material for automotive components. ABS industrial waste in the form of a cut off injection-molded runner is a high-quality plastic waste that can be used as additional material in the production cycles. For an economic reason, adding waste material is very beneficial because the amount of virgin material can be minimized. One of the important parameters on the injection molding process is a thermal related parameter; the thermal properties of mix waste-virgin material could be different from those of the virgin material. This research was aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of mix ABS waste-virgin material. The content of waste material was made in 3 variations: 15%, 30%, and 45% (% wt). The molding specimens were made by using a 70-ton injection molding machine, and the thermal properties were measured by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) according to ASTM  3418-2015 standard. The results showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) at waste content of 15%, 30%, and 45% are 104.08 °C, 104.63 °C, and 105.46 °C, respectively, whereas their respective melting temperatures were 139.6 °C, 139.72 °C dan 132.2 °C. Those results were lower than the temperature of virgin material. It can be said that the waste content gives effect on increasing of Tg and reducing of Tm.

 


Keywords


Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Recycle, DSC, Glass Transition Temperature, Melting Temperatures

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/jmpm.3241

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