The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Efforts to Approve Myanmar Transitional Government Proposal on ASEAN 2014 Chairmanship

Hendra Manurung

Abstract


In 2011, Myanmar proposed to take the 2014 Chairmanship by swapping their turn with Laos. This is a deviation to ASEAN Charter Article 31 which says that the Chairmanship of ASEAN shall rotate annually based on the alphabetical order of the English names of Member States. Fortunately, by default, Myanmar’s Chairmanship would have to be in 2016 after Malaysia in 2015. Despite this and also considering year 2014 is crucial as it is only a year before the plan of the realization of ASEAN Economic Community on 31st January 2015, ASEAN approved Myanmar’s 2014 Chairmanship proposal. Thus, this research aims to examine the reasons what was ASEAN motives to support Myanmar Democratic Reform, and how ASEAN implements its efforts to initiate Myanmar for ASEAN 2014 Chairmanship. In conducting the research, the writer elaborated constructivism theory and institutional approach from international organization theory, which are used as theoretical framework. Through theory of constructivism, the ramification of past events is analyzed. The analysis is conducted particularly by identifying series of events and change of circumstance that affects ASEAN, Myanmar, and other state actors involved. This is done to identify possible factors affecting ASEAN’s decision to approve Myanmar’s 2014
Chairmanship proposal. Meanwhile, through institutional approach from international organization theory, the ASEAN Charter is used as a guide to analyze the basis of ASEAN’s assessment of the eligibility of Myanmar’s Chairmanship. ASEAN Charter Article 32 as stated the role of the chairman is the particular article which is used in this research as ASEAN’s standard of procedures (SOP) in assessing Myanmar’s eligibility.

Keywords


asean charter; myanmar; southeast asia; single market; asean chairmanship

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baoyun, Y. (2010) Myanmar and the ASEAN Integration Process.

Myanmar: Prospect for Change. Singapore: Select Publishing.

Barkin, J. S. (2006) International Organization: Theories and Institutions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chalermpalanupap, T. (2010) ASEAN’s Policy of Enhanced Interactions. Myanmar/Burma: Inside Challenges, Outside Interest. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Evans, G. and Jeffrey Newnham. (1998) The Penguin Dictionary of

International Relations. London: Penguin

Flick, Uwe. (2009) An Introduction to Qualitative Research, Fourth

Edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.

Goldstein, Joshua S. and John C. Pevehouse. (2009) International

Relations. New York: Pearson.

Haacke, J. (2006) Myanmar’s Foreign Policy: Domestic Influence and International Implications. New York: Routledge.

Huntington, Samuel P. (1991) The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Kothari, C.R. (2004) Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques, Second Revised Edition. New Delhi: New Age International Ltd.

Kudo, T. (2008) Myanmar’s Economic Relations with China: who

benefits and who pays? Dictatorship, Disorder and Decline in

Myanmar Monique Skidmore and Trevor Wilson (eds.). Canberra:

ANU Press.

Leehey, J. (2005) Writing in a Crazy Way: Literary Life in Contemporary Urban Burma at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century. Burma at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century Monique Skidmore (eds.). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Reus-Smit, C. (2005) Constructivism. Theories of International

Relations Scot Burchill and others (eds), Third Edition. Basingstoke:

Palgrave.

Severino, Rodolfo C. (2008) ASEAN. Singapore: ISEAS.

Steinberg, D. (2010) Burma/Myanmar: What Everyone Needs to

Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yin, Robert K. (2003) Case Study Research: Design and Methods,

Third Edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

ASEAN Documents

ASEAN Economic Community Blue Print 2015

ASEAN Charter 2009 Preamble

ASEAN Charter Chapter IV Article 7

ASEAN Charter Chapter VII Article 20

ASEAN Charter Chapter X Article 31

Essay

Swanström, N. (2012) Sino-Myanmar Relations: Security and Beyond. Stockholm: Institute for Security and Development Policy.

Journals

Davies, M. (2012) The Perils of Incoherence: ASEAN, Myanmar and the Avoidable Failures of Human Rights Socialization? Contemporary Southeast Asia. 34(1), 1-22.

Shivanda, H. (2011) Sino-Myanmar Military Cooperations. Journal of Defence Studies. 5 (3), 117-127.

Wendt, A. (1992) Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social

Construction of Power Politics. International Organization. 46 (2),

-425.

Zaw, A. (2001) ASEAN-Burma Relations. Challenges to Democratization in Burma: Perspective on Multilateral and Bilateral Responses.

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. (2010) A Humanitarian Call: The ASEAN Response to Cyclone Nargis. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

Acharya, A. (2012) ASEAN and Burma/Myanmar: Past and Prologue. http://www.risingpowersinitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/policybrief_apr2012_aseanmyanmar.pdf. Accessed on January 13th 2014.

Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma. Results: 2010 Election Watch. http://www.altsean.org/Research/2010/Key%20Facts/Results/Overall.php. Accessed on October 25th 2014.

Amnesty International Australia. (2012) Timeline: Aung San Suu Kyi

and Amnesty International. http://www.amnesty.org.au/features/

comments/28953. Accessed on June 19th 2014.

ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting. (2015) About the ASEAN DefenceMinisters’ Meeting (ADMM-PLUS). https://admm.asean.org/index.php/about-admm/about-admm-plus.html. Accessed on

January 14th 2015.

ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus. (2005) The Depayin

Massacre: 2 Years On, Justice Denied. http://www.aseanmp.org/

resources/Depayin%20Massacre.pdf. Accessed on September 26th

Asia Times Online. (2005) Yangon Still under Beijing’s Thumb. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/GB11Ae01.html. Accessed on September 23rd 2014.

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. ASEAN Charter. http://

www.asean.org/asean/asean-charter. Accessed on December 27th

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. Chairman’s Statement of the 11th ASEAN Summit: “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”. http://www.asean.org/news/item/chairman-s-statement-of-the-11th-asean-summit-one-vision-one-identity-one-community. Accessed on October 22nd 2014.

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. Chairman’s Statement of the 25th ASEAN Summit: “Moving Forward in Unity to a Peaceful and Prosperous Community”. http://www.asean.org/images/pdf/

_upload/Chairman%20Statement%20of%20the%2025th%20ASEAN%20Summit.pdf. Downloaded on December 26th 2014.

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. Chair’s Statement of the 19th ASEAN Summit in Bali 17 November 2011. http://www.asean.org/archive/documents/19th%20summit/CS.pdf. Accessed on August 19th 2014.

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II). http://www.asean.org/news/item/declaration-ofasean-concord-ii-bali-concord-ii. Accessed on October 3rd 2014.

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. History. http://www.asean.org/asean/about-asean/history. Accessed on December 27th 2013.

Association of Southeast Asia Nations. The Ratification of the ASEAN Charter. http://www.asean.org/archive/AC-Update.pdf. Accessed on August 18th 2014.

BBC. (2011) Aung San Suu Kyi meets Burma President. http://

www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-14585995. Accessed on

December 15th 2014.

BBC News. (2014) Myanmar Profile: Overview. http://www.bbc.com/

news/world-asia-pacific-12990563. Accessed on September 14th

BBC News. (2014) Myanmar Profile: Timeline. http://www.bbc.com/

news/world-asia-pacific-12992883. Accessed on August 19th 2014.

Bio. Aung San Suu Kyi Biography. http://www.biography.com/people/aung-san-suu-kyi-9192617. Accessed on September 26th 2014.

Burma Campaign UK. (2012) Political Prisoner Releases in Burma. http://www.burmacampaign.org.uk/images/uploads/16-Political-Prisoner-Releases.pdf. Downloaded on December 15th 2014.

Burmanet. (2012) Associated Press: Myanmar law allowing labor

unions and strikes comes into effect. http://www.burmanet.org/

news/2012/03/12/associated-press-myanmar-law-allowing-laborunions-and-strikes-comes-into-effect/. Accessed on December 17th 2014.

Burma Today. (2004) Myanmar Roadmap to Democracy: The Way

Forward. http://www.burmatoday.net/burmatoday2003/2004/02/040218_khinmgwin.htm. Accessed on October 3rd 2014.

Cornell University Law School. Customary International Law. http://www.law.cornell.edu /wex/customary_international_law. Accessed on September 14th 2014.

CNS IONP. ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). http://cns.miis.edu/inventory/pdfs/arf.pdf. Downloaded on January 14th 2015.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The East Asia Summit. http://www.dfat.gov.au/asean/eas/. Accessed on January 14th 2015.

Dictionary.com. Democracy. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/democracy. Accessed on September 14th 2015.

European Commission. The EU’s relations with Myanmar / Burma.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2004_2009/documents/fd/dase20050419_003/dase20050419_003en.pdf. Accessed on

October 2nd 2015.

Europe’s World. (2014) ASEAN’s Much Underrated Soft Power. http://europesworld.org/2014/06/15/aseans-much-underrated-softpower/#.VJ2Jw3GEIA. Accessed on August 11th 2015.

Fox News. (2005) Senator: Myanmar Can’t Chair Meetings. http://

www.foxnews.com/story/2005/03/31/senator-myanmar-cant-chairmeetings/. Accessed on October 6th 2015.

Freedom House. (2014) Burma. https://www.freedomhouse.org/

report/freedom-world/2014/burma#.VLJ3XMnLJ-Q. Accessed on

December 11th 2015.

Government of the Netherlands. The Difference Between Signing and Ratification. http://www.government.nl/issues/treaties/thedifference-between-signing-and-ratification. Accessed on

September 14th 2015.

GOV.UK. (2012) Embargoes and Sanctions on Burma. https://

www.gov.uk/arms-embargo-on-burma. Accessed on June 19th

Holmes, Oliver, “Aung San Suu Kyi Wins Outright Majority in Myanmar Election. The Guardian, 13 November 2015. http://

www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/13/aung-san-suu-kyi-winsmyanmar-landmark-election.

Human Rights Watch. Chronology of the National Convention. http://www.hrw.org/legacy/english/docs/2007/07/18/burma16412.htm. Accessed on October 23rd 2015.

International Labour Oganization. (1998) Forced Labour in Myanmar (Burma). http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb273/myanmar.htm. Accessed on September 24th 2015.

Jha, G. The Quest for Democratization in Myanmar. http://

www.jnu.ac.in/SIS/MakingSISVisible/Presentations/

The%20Quest%20for%20Democratization%20in%20Myanmar.%20Ganganath%20Jha.pdf. Downloaded on December 16th 2015.

Manurung, Hendra. (2013). “ASEAN Economic Community 2015”. The President Post Indonesia, July 22, 2013, http://www.thepresidentpost.com/2013/07/22/asean-economiccommunity-2015.

Martin, Michael F. (2013). Burma’s Political Prisoners and U.S.

Sanctions. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/

pdf. Downloaded on June 19th 2015.

Mizzima. (2014). Leaked ASEAN Chairman’s Statement Will Not be

Amended. http://www.mizzima.com/mizzima-news/myanmar/item/14552-leaked-asean-chairman-s-statement-will-not-be-amended/14552-leaked-asean-chairman-s-statement-will-not-be-amended. Accessed on February 2nd 2015.

New Mandala. (2010). The Significance of Myanmar’s 2010 election. http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/newmandala/2010/12/15/thesignificance-of-myanmar’s-2010-election. Accessed on October 25th 2015.

New York Times. (2005) Myanmar gives up 2006 ASEAN chairmanship. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/26/world/asia/26ihtweb.0726asean.html?r=0&_r=0. Accessed on October 6th 2015.

Noichim, C. (2008) The ASEAN Space Organization: Legal Aspect and Feasibility. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/13358/Full%20text.pdf;jsessionid=0C25C877227365BD49B9FF10E2912CCD?sequence=6. Downloaded on August 18th 2015.

Oxford Burma Alliance. 1988 Uprising and 1990 Election. http://

www.oxfordburmaalliance.org/1988-uprising—1990-elections.html. Accessed on June 19th 2015.

Reuters. (2008) Myanmar charter vote a first step: ASEAN. http://

www.reuters.com/article/2008/02/12/us-myanmar-asean-interviewidUSBKK7687720080212. Accessed on October 22nd 2015.

Security Council Report. Update Report No.4: Myanmar. http://

www.securitycouncilreport.org/update-report/lookup-cglKWLeMTIsG-b-1304015.php?print=true. Accessed on August

th 2015.

Taiwan News. (2011) US welcomes Myanmar decision to halt dam.

http://www.taiwannews.com.tw/etn/news_content.php?id=1722578. Accessed on December 16th

Thambipillai, P. External Partners in ASEAN Community Building: Their Significance and Complementarities. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/singapur/04601/2007-3/pushpa.pdf. December 26th 2015.

The Guardian. (2011) Burma announces amnesty for more than 6,000 prisoners. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/oct/11/burmaprisoners-amnesty-6300-release. Accessed on December 17th 2015.

The Myanmar Times. (2011) Myanmar ‘ready’ to Chair ASEAN. http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/national-news/2826-myanmarready-to-chair-asean.html. Accessed on December 14th 2015.

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar President Office. (2011)

President U Thein Sein addresses first Pyidaungsu Hluttaw second

regular session. www.president-office.gov.mm/en/?qs=briefingroom/speeches-and-remarks/2011/08/22/id-212. Accessed on August 19th 2015.

Thomas, David R. (2003) A General Inductive Approach for Qualitative Data Analysis. http://www.frankumstein.com/PDF/Psychology/Inductive%20Content%20Analysis.pdf. Downloaded on January 10th 2015.

Tonkin, D. The 1990 Elections in Myanmar (Burma): Broken Promise or a Failure of Communications? http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/DTElections. html. Accessed on June 19th 2015.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/hi.2015.0075.148-161

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 5 times
PDF - 1 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Hubungan Internasional

Creative Commons License   

Jurnal Hubungan Internasional by Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Based on a work at http://journal.umy.ac.id/index.php/jhi.

Print ISSN: 1829-5088 / Online ISSN: 2503-3883