Local Community Participation in the Implementation of REDD+: The Case of Meru Betiri National Park

Pradipta Dirgantara


Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus (REDD+)  in Meru Betiri National Park (MBNP) East Java – Indonesia, is considered an essential collaborative program between the Indonesian government, International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), and surrounding local communities to mitigate climate change and global warming. In its implementation, community participation plays a significant role because they are impacted directly by REDD+, as stated in the Cancun Agreement and Anchorage Declaration of Indigenous Peoples on Climate Change. Therefore, this research focuses on the participation level and how it contributes to the program. This research used the community participation theory from Choguill and benefited from using mixed methods with a single case strategy. Data were gathered through a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview, and a literature study. The results uncovered that the participation level reached conciliation with the least support of three rungs as a degree of participation. At this stage, the local community and government started to realize their interests by supporting each other. Even so, the government had control in enforcing the decision-making process that involved the community in REDD+. In the end, government and stakeholders at the local and national scales should accelerate community participation through law enforcement and full community involvement in implementing REDD+.


local community; participation; carbon trade; global warming; REDD+

Full Text:



Affif, S., Kussarianto, & Ibie, B. F. (2011). Study of Stakeholders Participation in REDD+ in Central Kalimantan. Pontianak: Kemitraan.

Alexander, S. (2011). Opportunities and Challenges for Ecological Restoration Within REDD+. Restoration Ecology, 19(06), 683–689.

Angelsen, A. &. (1999). Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models. World Bank Research Observer, 14(1), 73-98.

Angelsen, A. (2008). REDD Models and Baselines. International Forestry Review, 10(3), 465-475.

Askham, B. (2010). REDD pilot projects in Indonesia. Retrieved January 11, 2019, from from http://www.ecosmagazine.com/?paper=EC10048

Awono, A., Somorin, O. A., Atyi, R. E., & Levang, P. (2013). Tenure and participation in local REDD+ projects: Insights from Southern Cameroon. Environmental Science & Policy, 35, 76-86.

BAPPENAS. (2010). National REDD+ Strategy: Revised Edition. Jakarta: BAPPENAS.

Bleaney, A., Vickers, V., & Peskett, L. (2009). REDD+ in Nepal: putting community forestry centre stage. Bangkok: REDD+ Net.

Boissière, M., Herold, M., Atmadja, S., & Sheil, D. (2017). The feasibility of local participation in Measuring, Reporting and Verification (PMRV) for REDD+. PLoS ONE, 12(5), e0176897. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176897

Bong, I. W., Felker, M. E., & Maryudi, A. (2016). How Are Local People Driving and Affected by Forest Cover Change? Opportunities for Local Participation in REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification. PLoS ONE, 11(11). doi:10.1371/journal

Casse, T., Milhøj, A., Nielsen, M. R., Meilby, H., & Rochmayanto, Y. (2019). Lost in Implementation? REDD+ Country Readiness Experiences in Indonesia and Vietnam. Climate and Development, 11(9), 799-811. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/1756552

Choguill, M. B. (1996). A Ladder of Community Participation for Underdeveloped Countries. Habitat Intl, 20(3), 431-444.

CIFOR. (). (2010). Simply REDD: CIFOR's Guide to Forest, Climate Change, and REDD. Bogor: CIFOR.

Cromberg, M., Duchelle, A. E., & Rocha, I. O. (2014). Local Participation in REDD+: Lessons from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. Forests, 2014(5), 579-598. doi:10.3390/f5040579

Di Gregorio, M., Brockhaus, M., Cronin, T., & Muharrom, E. (2012). Politics and Power in National REDD+ Policy Processes. In Analysing REDD+: Challenges and Choices (pp. 69-90). Bogor: CIFOR.

Ekawati, S., Subarudi., Budiningsih, K., Sari, G. K., & Muttaqin, M. Z. (2019). Policies affecting the implementation of REDD+ in Indonesia (cases in Papua, Riau, and Central Kalimantan). Forest Policy and Economics, 108, 1-15. doi:doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.201

Enrici, A. M., & Hubacek, K. (2018). Challenges for REDD+ in Indonesia: a case study of three project sites. Ecology and Society, 23(2), 7. doi:doi.org/10.5751/ES-09805-230207

Erbaugh, J., Nurrochmat, D., & Purnomo, H. (2017). Regulation, formalization, and smallholder timber production in northern Central Java, Indonesia. Agroforest System, 91, 867–880. doi: doi.org/10.1007/s10457-016-0037-6

Fitriawan, R. A. (2017). Scientific Journalism and Early Warning System in Indonesia. Journalism Studies, 1(1), 41-59.

Forsyth, T. (2009). Multilevel, Multiactor Governance in REDD+: Participation, Integration, and Coordination. In A. Angelsen, M. Brockhaus, M. Kanninen, W. D. Sunderlin, & S. Wertz-Kanounnikoff (Eds.), Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options (p. 113). Bogor: CIFOR.

Hein, J. I. (2019). Political Ecology of REDD+ in Indonesia: Agrarian Conflicts and Forest Carbon. New York: Routledge.

ITTO. (2009). Tropical Forest Conservation for Reducing Emissions From Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Enhancing Carbon Stocks in Meru Betiri National Park, Indonesia. Tokyo: ITTO.

Kanounnikoff, S. W., & Apirak, M. K. (2009). Emerging REDD+: A preliminary survey of demonstration and readiness activities. Bogor: CIFOR.

Lubowski, R. N., & Rose, S. (2013). The Potential for REDD+: Key Economic Modeling Insights and Issues. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 7(1), 67-90.

Lyster, R. (2013). International Legal Framework for REDD+: Ensuring the Legitimacy. In R. Lyster, C. MacKenzie, & C. McDermott (Eds.), Law, Tropical Forest, and Carbon: The Case of REDD+ (pp. 3-25). Cambridge:: Cambridge University Press.

Mahmudah, L. (2010, July 30). Meru Betiri park prepares to host REDD Pilot project. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from from The Jakarta Post: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/07/30/meru-betiri-park-prepares-host-redd-pilot-project.html

Marklund, L., & Schoene, D. (2006). Global assessment of growing stock, biomass and carbon stock. Rome: Forest Resource Assessment Program.

Meru Betiri National Park Office. (2015). The Monograph of Meru Betiri National Park. Jember: Meru Betiri National Park Office.

Miettinen, J., Shi, C., & Liew, S. C. (2011). Deforestation Rates in Insular South East Asia between 2000 and 2010. Global Change Biology, 17, 2261-2270.

Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. (2010). Strategy REDD-Indonesia: Readiness Phase 2010-2012 & the implementation progress. Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Forestry.

Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. (2011). The Implementation of REDD+ in Indonesia. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from from http://ditjenppi.menlhk.go.id/berita-ppi/33-beranda/1804-faq.html

Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. (2016, November 29). Indonesia joined COP 22. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from from Ditjen PPI: http://ditjenppi.menlhk.go.id/berita-ppi/2795-hasil-menggembirakan-keikutsertaan-indonesia-di-perundingan-cop22.html

Ministry of the Forestry Republic of Indonesia. (2008). Indonesia Discusses REDD at COP 14 in Poznan. Jakarta: The Ministry of the Forestry Republic of Indonesia.

MRFCJ. (2013). The Mary Robinson Foundation Climate Justice: Our Work. Retrieved April 9, 2014, from The Mary Robinson Foundation Climate Justice: http://www.mrfcj.org/our-work/unfccc/cop-timeline.html

PWC. (2011). Funding for Forests: UK Government Support for REDD+. London: Climate Focus & International Union for Conservation of Nature.

SATGAS REDD+. (2012). Strategi Nasional REDD+ . Jakarta: SATGAS REDD+ Indonesia.

Simula, M. (2010, December 30). Analysis of REDD+: financing gaps and overlaps. Retrieved January 9, 2019, from from http://reddpluspartnership.org/25159-09eb378a8444ec149e8ab32e2f5671b11.pdf

Streck, C., & Parker, C. (2012). Financing REDD+. In Analysing REDD+: Challenges & Choices (pp. 111-127).

Sunderland, T., Blom, B., & Murdiyarso, D. (2010). Getting REDD to work locally: lessons learned from integrated. Environmental & Science Journal, 1-9.

The Jakarta Globe. (2010, January 6). The Jakarta Globe: Archive: REDD+. Retrieved January 11, 2019, from from The Jakarta Globe: http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/archive/germany-pledges-39m-for-redd-pilot-project/

The REDD Desk. (2014). REDD Countries: Redd desk Initiatives. Retrieved January 9, 2019, from from http://theredddesk.org/countries/initiatives/indonesia-australia-forest-carbon-partnership

UNFCCC . (2010). Report of COP 15 in Copenhagen. Bonn: UNFCCC.

UNFCCC. (2008). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its thirteenth session. Bali: UNFCCC.

UNFCCC. (2010). The Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention. Cancun: UNFCCC.

UNFCCC. (2011). UNFCCC: Durban outcomes. Retrieved January 9, 2019, from from United Nations Climate Change: http://unfccc.int/key_steps/durban_outcomes/items/6825.php

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/jhi.v9i2.8168

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 213 times
PDF - 72 times


Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Hubungan Internasional

 Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Indexed by:


Jurnal Hubungan Internasional is a member of:

Editorial Office of Jurnal Hubungan Internasional 

Ki Bagus Hadikusumo Building, E4, 1st floor, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Jl. Brawijaya, Tamantirto, Kasihan, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, 55183, Indonesia
jurnalhi@umy.ac.id ariekusumapaksi@umy.ac.id


Jurnal Hubungan Internasional in collaboration with:


Creative Commons License   

Jurnal Hubungan Internasional is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.